Formatting Guidelines

Authors should prepare their manuscripts according to the guidelines provided in this section. Manuscripts that are not prepared according to these guidelines may be returned for revision prior to any editorial consideration.

Manuscripts should be typed single spaced on only one side of the paper. The type on paper should be clear and readable. Use wide margins of at least 1 inch (2.5 cm) at the top, bottom, right, and left of every page. Use 12 pt size Times New Roman throughout the manuscript except for the headlines. Manuscripts should not exceed 12 pages in length.

The following is the suggested format for paper submissions:

  • Paper Title
  • All Authors’ Names, Affiliation, Email
  • Abstract and Keywords (Up to 5 keywords)
  • Introduction/Background/Objectives
  • Literature Review
  • Methodology, Findings, Analysis and Discussion
  • Conclusion, Limitations and Recommendations
  • Reference
  • Tables, Figures etc in their appropriate location in the paper (if applicable)


Manuscript’s Title

The following is the suggested format for manuscript’s title:

Title of the Paper (14pt Times New Roman, Bold, Centered)

Author’s names (12pt Times New Roman, centered)

Department (12pt Times New Roman, centered)

University (12pt Times New Roman, centered)

Address (12pt Times New Roman, centered)

email (12pt Times New Roman, centered)


Abstract, Keyword and JEL Classification

All manuscripts must include an abstract not exceeding 150 words (if the full manuscript is in Bahasa Melayu, authors need to provide one other version in the English language). All manuscripts must provide up to 5 keywords below the abstract.



First level headings should be typed in CAPITALS, 12pt, Times New Roman, bold print and aligned left on a separate line. The first text line that follows should also be aligned left.

Second level headings are aligned left in a separate line, bold print, 12pt and in Times New Roman. Only the first letter and proper nouns should be in capital letters. The first text line that follows should also be aligned left.

Third level headings should be in italics, bold print, 12pt, Times New Roman and aligned left. The text follows on the same line.


Figures and Tables

Illustrations and tables should supplement the text and not duplicate it. Because they are more expensive to prepare for publication than text, use them judiciously. All charts, graphs, drawings, and other illustrations should be referred to as figures. Figures should be numbered and titled following the format for tables (described below). However, the title for the tables should be placed on top of the tables while for figures, the title should be placed below.

Authors should be prepared to supply final camera-ready prints for all figures at the time the manuscript is accepted for publication.

Begin each table on a separate page and number tables consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Each table should have a title (in uppercase and lowercase letters), centered at the top of the table, that is preceded by the word TABLE and its number (use Arabic numerals). Example:


TABLE 3: Descriptive statistics and correlation matrix


Notes to a table should be placed below the table. General notes that explain the table as a whole should be designated by the word Note followed by a colon. Specific notes that refer to a particular column, row, or individual entry are indicated by superscript lowercase letters. Probability notes indicate level of statistical significance and can be designated by asterisks and daggers (e.g., *< .05, **< .01, †< .10). Begin each type of note (general note, specific note, and probability note, in that order) on a new line, flush left.

In the text, refer to every table and figure by their numbers (e.g., “see Table 3”) and discuss only their highlights. Never write “the table below” or “the figure on page 8” because the position and page number of tables and figures cannot be determined until the typesetter makes the pages.



Footnotes are not recommended. Endnotes should be used only if absolutely necessary and must be numbered consecutively throughout the manuscript with superscript Arabic numerals. On a separate page, type the text for endnotes in the order in which they are mentioned in the text.



Lengthy but essential information (e.g., sample questionnaire, technical notes on method, a large table) should be presented in an appendix. Begin an appendix on a separate page, and type the word APPENDIX centered at the top of the page. If they are multiple appendixes, label each one alphabetically: APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, etc. In the text, refer to appendixes by their labels (e.g., “see Appendix A for questionnaire items”). Provide each appendix with a title.


Reference Citations

All entries in the reference list must be cited in text. Cite references in text using the author-date method [e.g., Kromkowski (1999)]. If a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the work is referred to in the text. If a work has three, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the name of the first author followed by “et al.” and the year. For works with four or more authors, use only the name of the first author followed by “et al.” and the year whenever the work is cited (in the reference list, however, all names must be given). Page numbers should be provided when specific arguments or findings of authors are paraphrased, summarized, or directly quoted. Examples:


First citation in text

Low and Yong (2011: 121-132) argued that . . . . . . . .

Leuz, Nanda and Wysocki (2003) found . . . . . . . .

Subsequent citations

Fauzias and Yong (2011: 121-132) argued that . . . . . . . .

Leuz et al. (2003) found . . . . . . . .


Do not use ampersands (&) when references are cited as part of the sentence.

However, for parenthetical citations of two or more works, use alphabetical ordering and ampersands (&). Separate each cited work by semicolons except for multiple works by the same authors which must be separated by comas. Example:

Several researchers (e.g., Bushee 2001; Darrough & Rangan 2004, 2010; Norman & Kamran 2005; Shen & Chih 2005; Woidtke 2002) supported this argument.


Reference List

A Roman alphabetically-ordered reference list should be included at the end of the manuscript. All references cited in text must appear in the reference list. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of all information in a reference.

Several references by the same author(s) should be ordered chronologically (earliest date first). Multiple references to works by an identical author(s) with the same publication date should be arranged alphabetically by the title that follows the date (excluding A or The) and differentiated by adding lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.) immediately after the year. For periodicals, include an issue number only if the pages of the periodical are not numbered consecutively throughout the volume (i.e., if each issue begins with page 1).

Begin the reference list on a new page and type the word REFERENCES centered at the top of the page. Type each entry using a hanging-indent format and follow the reference style of the examples below.


Books and book chapters

Black, F., Jensen, M.C., & Scholes, M. 2002. The capital asset pricing model: Some empirical tests. In Studies in the Theory of Capital Markets,edited by M.C. Jensen & R.A. Rozeff, 201-239. New York: Praeger.

Brigham, E.F., Gapenski, L. & Ehrhardt, M.C. 2010. Financial Management: Theory and practice. 13th edition. Fort Worth: The Dryden Press.

Maddala, G.S. 2001. Introduction to Econometrics. 3rd edition. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.


Abdullah, A. Razak & Muhammad A. Affandi. 2011. The future of the Gen-X entrepreneurs. Malaysian Business 31 May, 123.

Acharya V.V. & Pedersen, L.H. 2005. Asset pricing with liquidity risk. Journal of Financial Economics 77: 375-410.

Davis, J.L., Fama, E.F. & French, K.R. 2000. Characteristics, covariances, and average returns: 1929 to 1997. Journal of Finance 55(1): 389-406.

Hodrick, R.J. & Zhang, X. 2001. Evaluating the specification errors of asset pricing models. Journal of Financial Economics 62: 327-376.

Proceedings, presented papers, and dissertations

Locke, E.A., Durham, C.C. & Poon, J.M.L. 1995. Knowledge seeking as a group strategy to attain goals. In New developments in group dynamics and group effectiveness, E. A. Locke (Chair). Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 18-20 May, Orlando, USA.

Mansor H. Ibrahim & Rusmawati Said. 2011. Disaggregated consumer prices and oil prices pass-through: evidence from Malaysia. Proceedings of the VI Malaysian National Economics Conference: Vol. 1, edited by Mansor Jusoh, Nor Aini Idris, Tamat Sarmidi, Mohd. Adib Ismail & Ahmad Mohd Yusof, 5-7 June. Malacca, Malaysia, 296-305.

Nor Azizan Che Embi. 2010. An  examination of the initial performance of Malaysian shariah-compliant IPOs. Unpublished PhD. Diss., Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.

Poon, J. M. L., Stevens, C. K. & Gannon, M. J. 1996. Effects of learning style and training method on reactions to cross-cultural training. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, 12-15 August, Cincinnati, USA.

Electronic reference

Bartol, K. M., Koehl, D. & Martin, D. C. 1987. Quantitative versus qualitative information utilization among college business students. [CD-ROM].Educational and Psychological Research 7: 61-74. Abstract from: SilverPlatter File: PsycLIT Item: 75-24812.

Funder, D. C. 1994(March). Judgmental process and content: Commentary on Koehler on base-rate [9 paragraphs].Psycoloquy [On-line serial], 5(17). Available E-mail: psyc@pucc Message: Get psyc 94-xxxxx

Washington, H.J. 2010. Common factors in debt financing: New evidence from an emerging market. Available at http://sbtn.locklibrary/bondfinance_0127.pdf